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The world is making great progress information of COVID-19 vaccines. Various vaccines are presently accessible in different countries worldwide. In the United States, vaccines need an endorsement from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
To start with, they need to go through three stages of tests to demonstrate that they are protected and effective to humans. The last stage, stage 3, includes a huge number of participants.
Right now, two COVID-19 Vaccine have FDA endorsement for use in the U.S.:
- the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine
- the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine
The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, developed in Germany, received FDA endorsement in the form of an emergency use authorization on December 11, 2020.
In stage 3, Trials include more than 43,000 participants, around half received a placebo and half received two doses of the vaccine, with a gap of 21 days. The results showed that the vaccine was 95% effective at protecting against COVID-19.
The Advanced vaccine, developed in Cambridge, MA, received approval for emergency use in the U.S. on December 18. In a stage 3 trial, 30,000 volunteers will get either a placebo or two doses of the vaccine, with a gap of 28 days. The results indicated that the vaccine was 94% effective.
Other vaccines that have also been approved for use in various countries include:
- The Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine, in the United Kingdom
- Coronavac, developed by Sinovac, in China
- The Sputnik V vaccine, in Russia
- Covaxin, developed by Bharat Biotech, in Indio
How do vaccines work?
Vaccines prompt the immune system to make antibodies to defend against diseases. In other words, they make the immune system behave as if the body already had this illness.
Vaccines achieve this without making the person sick.
After vaccination, the person develops immunity to the disease. Their body can fight off the infection if exposed to the pathogen, such as the novel coronavirus, occurs.
While waiting for a vaccine, people need to take other steps to protect themselves and others from COVID-19.
The CDC recommends the following ways of reducing the risk of infection:
- wearing a face-covering in public
- washing the hands with soap and hot water frequently, for at least 20 seconds at a time
- using a hand sanitizer, with at least 60% alcohol, when washing the hands is not possible
- covering any sneeze or cough with a tissue, disposing of this at once, and washing the hands
- avoiding touching the face
- regularly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces that people frequently touch, such as doorknobs
- limiting or avoiding handshakes
- staying home and away from others if sick
- staying at least 6 feet away from people who are not housemates
- avoiding crowds whenever possible
- avoiding poorly ventilated places whenever possible
- being watchful for any symptoms, including a high fever and a cough
Find more at https://www.medicalnewstoday.com